13.2.10. Describing API

NextGIS Web incorporates type-annotated views and routes to:

  • Ensure input data is valid

  • Convert data into Python objects

  • Create OpenAPI 3.1.0 schema

This approach heavily relies on Annotated type hints and the MsgSpec library. Currently, it supports a specific set of types, with plans to potentially add more in the future, without attempting to accommodate every possible use case.

Similar to the Pyramid framework, the handling of views is determined by their signatures. The established conventions for these view signatures are:

  • An argument named request is required at the first or second position

  • If the request argument is the second, the first is a request context

  • A request context argument can use any name, like resource or obj

  • An argument named body or json_body represents decoded request body

  • Keyword-only arguments (after *) represent query parameters

  • The remaining arguments are treated as path parameters Path parameters

Supported types: string (str) and integers (int) only. Behind the scenes, values are decoded using MsgSpec, thus msgspec.Meta constraints work.

from typing_extensions import Annotated
from msgspec import Meta

def path_param(request, param: Annotated[int, Meta(gt=0)]):

def setup_pyramid(comp, config):

In the example above, both /path/1 and /path/0 will match the route, but for /path/0 the 422 Unprocessable Entity error will be returned as it doesn’t fit param > 0 condition. Query parameters

Supported types:

  • Primitives:
    • Basic types: str, int, bool, float

    • enum.Enum with string values only

    • typing.Literal with string and integer values

  • Sequences of primitive types:
    • typing.List for variable-length uniform lists

    • typing.Tuple for fixed-length non-uniform and uniform tuples

  • Objects:
    • msgspec.Struct

    • typing.Dict

from typing import Dict, List
from msgspec import Struct

class SomeStruct(Struct, kw_only=True):
    foo: str
    bar: str = "qux"

def query_param(
    txt: str,
    num: int = 0,
    flag: bool = False,
    list_str: List[str],
    list_int: List[int] = [1, 2, 3],
    tuple_mixed: Tuple[str, int],
    tuple_uniform: Tuple[float, ...],
    struct: SomeStruct,
    dict_str_int: Dict[str, int],
    dict_list: Dict[str, List[int]],

Arguments of primitive types can accept a default value. For booleans true and false values should be used, but yes and no are also accepted. In case of multiple values of the same parameter (...&num=1&num=2&...), the last value is decoded (num == 2).

List values are decoded using the form style array encoding with as comma-separated values. Urlencoded commas are decoded as a part of values, plain commas as list separators. An empty string value (...&arr_str=&...) is decoded as an empty list.

Structs are decoded using the form style object encoding which means that every struct field becomes an URL parameter (...&foo=some&bar=other&...). This fact can help to reuse a Struct for a group of parameters without repeating. Default values aren’t allowed for structs, fields with no default value are required parameters.

Dictionaries are decoded using the deepObject style encoding as their possible keys are unknown (...&obj_dict[a]=1&obj_dict[b]=2&...). Default values aren’t allowed for dictionaries. Request body

For request bodies msgspec.Struct types should be used in most cases. Refer to MsgSpec documentation for details, here is the minimal example:

from msgspec import Struct

class SomeStruct(Struct, kw_only=True):
    foo: str
    bar: str = "qux"

def body(request, body: SomeStruct):
    ... Response

View results are encoded using MsgSpec JSON encoder depending on return annotation in the following cases:

  • Declared as msgspec.Struct

  • Wrapped into the AsJSON helper

These options support OpenAPI schema generation and static type checking, here is the examples:

from msgspec import Struct
from nextgisweb.lib.apitype import AsJSON
from nextgisweb.pyramid import viewargs

class SomeStruct(Struct, kw_only=True):
    foo: str
    bar: str = "qux"

def struct(request) -> SomeStruct:
    return SomeStruct(foo="zoo")

def helper(request) -> AsJSON[int]:
    return 1

The StatusCode annotation can be used to declare non-200 status codes. It’s important to note that this annotation only modifies the OpenAPI schema. To set the actual response status code, you should use request.response.status_code:

from typing_extensions import Annotated
from msgspec import Struct
from nextgisweb.lib.apitype import StatusCode

class SomeStruct(Struct, kw_only=True):
    foo: str

def create(request) -> Annotated[SomeStruct, StatusCode(201)]:
    request.response.status_code = 201
    return SomeStruct(foo="zoo")

If there is no idea which JSON value to return as nothing, like DELETE methods, EmptyObject can be used. It accepts None and converts it to {}. An empty object is better than the null value due to future extensibility.

from nextgisweb.lib.apitype import EmptyObject

def void(request) -> EmptyObject: